The player has satisfied Rule 28 as the ball first struck the course where required. The player breached Rule 1-2 when she exerted influence on the movement of the ball in play and incurs a penalty of two strokes in addition to the one-stroke penalty under Rule 28. [Decision 20-2c/4 is one relevant reference.] The player must drop the ball as near as possible to the spot directly under the place where she caught the ball. After the drop, if Rule 20-2c is applicable she would re-drop as prescribed in that Rule.
Rule 20-2a applies when a ball bounces or rolls against a player or equipment and the player is unable to move himself/herself or the equipment in time to avoid the contact with the ball. In this incident the player took an action which interfered with the movement of the ball.
There are several situations where a ball is dropped when a ball in play does not have a position on the course (also see Rule 24-1b) or when a ball must be put back into play.