1) Permitted under Rule 8-2a. Player A has defined his line of play and has asked Player B for assistance in alignment for that line of play.
2) The position of objects and the topography of the course are a matter of public information and not advice. It would be a matter of judgment and context of the comment by Player B as to whether Player B provided advice. In the case where the statement is simply stated there would be no penalty. If Player A were aligned to play a stroke left of the hole and Player B made such a statement, it would be reasonable to penalize Player B for giving advice. Also, the closer Player A is to the hole the more reasonable it would be to consider the statement to be advice.
3) Player B is providing advice on how to play the hole, a breach of Rule 8-1a. Player B is not permitted to suggest a line of play.
4) Information on distances and the position of objects on the course is permitted – not advice.
5) Player B is penalized two
strokes for a breach of Rule 8-1. Player B is advising a line of play, not
indicating Player A’s line of play, “the direction the player wishes his ball to
take after a stroke”.